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English was carried to a point such as seems hardly compatible
with the very existence of society. The Roman proconsul,
who, in a year or two, squeezed out of a province the means of
rearing marble palaces and baths on the shores of Campania,
of drinking from amber, of feasting on singing birds, of ex-
hibiting armies of gladiators and flocks of camelopards; the
Spanish viceroy, who, leaving behind him the curses of Mexico
or Lima, entered Madrid with a long train of gilded coaches,
and of sumpter-horses trapped and shod with silver, were now
outdone. Cruelty, indeed, properly so called, was not among
the vices of the servants of the Company. But cruelty itself
could hardly have produced greater evils than sprang from
their unprincipled eagerness to be rich. They pulled down
their creature, Meer J aflier. They set up in his place another
N abob, named Meer Cossim. But Meer Cossim had parts and a
will; and, though sufficiently inclined to oppress his subjects
himself, he could not bear to see them ground to the dust by
oppressions which yielded him no profit, nay, which destroyed
his revenue in the very source. The English accordingly
pulled down Meer Cossim, and set up Meer Jaffier again; and
Meer Cossim, after revenging himself by a massacre surpassing
in atrocity that of the Black Hole, fled to the dominious of the
N-abob of Oude. At every one of these revolutions, the new
prince divided among his foreign masters whatever could be
scraped together in the treasury of his fallen predecessor. The
immense population of his dominions was given up as a prey to
those who had made him a sovereign, and who could unmake
him. The servants of the Company obtained, not for their
employers, but for themselves, a monopoly of almost the whole
internal trade. They forced the natives to buy dear and to sell
cheap. They insulted with impunity the tribunals, the police,
and the fiscal authorities of the country. They covered with
their protection a set of native dependents who ranged through
the provinces, spreading desolation and terror wherever they

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