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WARREN HASTINGS. 27

titled him to the warmest gratitude of his country, and which, by
Whatever means obtained, proved that he possessed great talents
for administration.

In the mean time, Parliament had been engaged in long and
grave discussions on Asiatic affairs. The ministry of Lord North,
in the session of 1773, introduced a measure which made a con-
siderable change in the constitution of the Indian government.
This law, known by the name of the Regulating Act, provided
that the presidency of Bengal should exercise a control over the
other possessions of the Company; that the chief of that presi-
dency should be styled Governor-General; that he should be
assisted by four Councillors; and that a supreme court of judica-
ture, consisting of a chief justice and three inferior judges, should
be established at Calcutta. This court was made independent of
the Governor-General and Council, and was intrusted with a civil
and criminal jurisdiction of immense and, at the same time, of
undefined extent.

The Governor-General and Councillors were named in the act,
and were to hold their situations for five years. Hastings was to
be the first Governor-General. One of the four new Councillors,
Mr. Barwell, an experienced servant of the Company, was then in
India. The other three, General Clavering, Mr. Manson, and
Mr. Francis, were sent out from England.

The ablest of the new Councillors was, beyond all doubt, Philip
Francis. His acknowledged compositions prove that he possessed
considerable eloquence and information. Several years passed in
the public oflices had formed him to habits of business. His
enemies have never denied that he had a fearless and manly
spirit; and his friends, we are afraid, must acknowledge that his
estimate of himself was extravagantly high, that his temper was
irritable, that his deportment was often rude and petulant, and
that his hatred was of intense bitterness and long duration.

It is scarcely possible to mention this eminent man without
adverting for a moment to the question which his name at once
suggests to every mind. Was he the author of the Letters of
Junius? Our own firm belief is that he was. The evidence is,
we think, such as would support a verdict in a civil, nay, in a
criminal proceeding. The handwriting of Junius is the very
peculiar handwriting of Francis, slightly disguised. As to the
position, pursuits, and connexions of J unius, the following are the

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