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letters which bear the signature of J unius ; the letter to the king
and the letters to Home Tookc, have little in common, except tfi;
asperity ; and asperity was an ingredient seldom wanting either in
the writings or in the speeches of Francis.

Indeed one of the strongest reasons for believing that Francis
was J unius is the moral resemblance between the two men. It is
not diflicult, from the letters which, under various signatures, are
known to have been written by J unius, and from his dealings with
Woodfall and others, to form a tolerably correct notion of his
character. He was clearly a man not destitute of real patriotism
and magnanimity, a man whose vices were not of a sordid kind.
But he must also have been a man in the highest degree arrogant
and insolent, a man prone to malevolence, and prone to the error
of mistaking his malevolence for public virtue. “ Doest thou well
to be angry?” was the question asked in old time of the Hebrew
prophet. And he answered, “ I do well.” This was evidently the
temper of Junius; and to this cause we attribute the savage
cruelty which disgraces several of his letters. No man is so
merciless as he who, under a strong self-delusion, confounds his
antipathies with his duties. It may be added that J unius, though
allied with the democratic party by common enmities, was the
very opposite of a democratic politician. While attacking in-
dividuals with a ferocity which perpetually violated all the laws
of literary warfare, he regarded the most defective parts of old
institutions with a respect amounting to pedantry, pleaded the
cause of Old Sarum with fervour, and contemptuously told the
capitalists of Manchester and Leeds that, if they wanted votes,
they might buy land and become freeholders of Lancashire and
Yorkshire. All this, we believe, might stand, with scarcely any
change, for a character of Philip Francis.

It is not strange that the great anonymous writer should have
been willing at that time to leave the country which had been so
powerfully stirred by his eloquence. Every thing had gone against
him. That party which he clearly preferred to every other, the
party of George Grenville, had been scattered by the death of its
chief; and Lord Suffolk had led the greater part of it over to the
ministerial benches. The ferment produced by the Middlesex.
election had gone down. Every faction must have been alike an
object of aversion to Junius. His opinions on domestic affairs
separated him from the ministry; his opinions on colonial affairs

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