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The upper ends of the needles should all have the same
polarity, that is, all be either north or south poles.

Magnetism flows along certain lines called

Lines of Magnetic Force. These lines always form closed
paths or circuits. The region in the neighborhood of a
magnet through which these lines are passing is called the
field of force, and the path through which they flow is called

Magnetic Circuit. The paths of the lines. of force can be
easily demonstrated by placing a piece of paper over a.



“Wk .I'°-Z~‘;aii\\
will??? «‘9 " 13 an»: .

ill/ii“) (>'li'\\._\\\\\ _ 11-1“...
' " l.’.' .I“\ In.
.‘ w ’1 .' |I ‘ 3 . - '. 'c _ I':
. -’+\~ W...
.‘ 1‘ I“: 11". :/)I: ‘1‘ \-\ :'_’.';:. .

FIG. 13. — A Magnetic “ Phantom,” Showing the Field of Force
about a‘ Magnet.

bar magnet and then sprinkling iron filings over the paper,
which should be jarred slightly in order that the filings may
be drawn into the magnetic paths.

The filings will arrange themselves in curved lines, di-
verging from one pole of the magnet and meeting again at
the opposite pole. The lines of force are considered as ex-
tending outward from the north pole of the magnet, curving

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