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order, possibly, to assist in the attainment of this
object, the Publisher of this Series of Conversation
Grammars (the ‘Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method’) has done me
the honour to entrust me with the preparation of the
present volume, which I trust will prove useful to
students and will not be found unworthy of a place
among the many excellent Handbooks on other lan-
guages which have rendered the Series so well known
in many lands..

The aim of this Volume is to provide the Student
with a thoroughly practical and up-to-date Introduction
to the study of the Modern Persian Language. There-
fore everything obsolete has, whenever it could not
be profitably omitted, been admitted only in such a
manner as to shew clearly the changes which have
occurred in the language in process of time, and to
warn the student against using too antiquated words
and employing modes C) of expression which are not
now used, or are used in a different sense.

A residence of more than seven years in Persia
itself (in addition to many years’ previous study of
the language) and conversation with all classes of the
people have, I trust, in some slight degree, fitted me
for the task which I have been invited to undertake.
I am much indebted to Aqa’ Mirza Asadu’llah of Is-
fahan, who has carefully revised the Persian Text of
the Stories contained in this Grammar, and has also
been consulted about every matter of importance. My
sincere thanks are due to the Rev. C. H. Stileman
M. A., the Secretary of the C. M. S. Persia Mission,
for his great kindness in going carefully through the
MS. of this Grammar with me, and for the many

1 The danger of this is well illustrated by the narrative
of what actually occurred to a learned Orientalist who had
studied Persian in the Panjab and then happened to be tra-
velling in Persia. Handing his horse’s bridle to a native servant
he said, ‘Asp i mdra hiddyat ktm.’ He doubtless meant to say
‘Lead my horse’ — in Modern Persian ‘Afsbamrd jfldu Mkun’:
but what he actual] did say denoted ‘Guide m horse in the
way of salvation’. The Persian’s surprise at t 6 commission
with which he was entrusted is more easily imagined than

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