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2 Introduction.

 

 

,- : i “'97 :3 73 . . . .
z Name a 5% g E: Transcription Pronunciation
3 :3

18 Zfid do -‘4 :a z '3 As English 2

19 ga .1, .la. la l: i t ,, Italian t

20 Z5 .15 J; 1;. l5 7_: 1. ,, Eng. 2

21 ‘Ain t C a '9 i. (Vida § 5)

22 Ghain s g, gh A guttural hard g
” 23 Fe .3 .1 a 3 f ‘ As Eng. f
24 Q51“ L3 L3 21 5 q A guttural hard k
“i 25 Ref 5;! .04 < ( 11’ As Eng. k
\._26 Gaf (f K ’<’ f g' ,, ,, g ingo, got

27 Lam J J i l l 1' ,, ,, l

28 Mim ‘- r .¢ 4- m” ,, ,, m

29 Nfin Q Q - . 'n‘ ,, ,, n

30 Viv J j 3 _) v’(vide § 5) ,, ,, V

31 He . 4 A a 'r a h’ ,, ,, h

32 Yé 6 6 -_- 1 y‘ (ride § 5) ,, ,, «manual 3/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Note that the dots of 0, L3 and L5, instead of being placed
beside one another, are often placed one above the other. Gaf
is usually printed exactly like Kaf.)

It should be observed that the distinction be-
tween Capital and Small Letters is unknown in Per-
sian. Each letter always retains its own sound, except

that a before 9 and .7. is pronounced m, the L3 in the
word Lil (= ‘Mr.’) is pronounced and final 5 in
Arabic words, when it should be fully written "5, is
7

often pronounced a: it is then transcribed — a.

§ 2. The student should notice that each letter
has in reality only one form. The apparent diversity
of forms is due to the facts that (1) most of the letters
may be united to the preceding or to the following
letter, and (2) that when a letter is separate or occurs
at the end of a word, a flourish is in most cases ad-
ded, partly for ornament and partly to shew that it

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