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The reflexive pronoun.

. _.4.7

Seventh Lesson.
The Reflexive Pronoun.

§ 61. The Reflexive Pronoun khpud or khgfi’sh. ‘self’
(which is of the same origin as the Latin se, suus') is
used very much as the similar pronoun in Latin. The
great difference is that, while se and was belong to
the third person singular and plural and to no other,
the Persian Reflexive Pronoun is used of all three per-
sons and of 60th numbers. thmd may be (a) the subject of
the verb, — in which case its use is easily under-
stood: it may be either (b) the direct or (c) the indirect
object of the verb; or again it may (d) be governed
by the prepositions (including lgdfeh) and the post-
position 46: it may also (e) be used as a noun and
have the separate pronouns with iga‘feh or the prono-
minal affixes of either number and of any of the three
persons attached to it. The use of this pronoun is'
rigorously observed in Persian, but it presents no dif-

ficulty if the following rules be observed. (We deal ‘~

first with khzmd alone and then with khpi'sh separately.)

§ 62. When khpud is the subject of the sentence, it
is used almost like the English self, and like that
word is generally united with a personal or possessive
pronoun: as,

1. thml (or man khgmd, now 'more usually man
khpudam, khzmd i man or Ichpudam) bi-shdhr mi-ravam, ‘I
myself am going to the city’.

2. thud (to kh'pud, now t6 khpudat, khgmd 73 to, or
khgmdat) fira d'ldi, ‘Thou thyself didst see him’.

3. Khzmd (ii khgmd, now 27 khpudash. khgmd '5 a,
Ich'pudash) (inn? gufl, ‘He himself said that’.

Similarly are used: — khgmd (ma khgmd, now md
Ichzm’daman, khgnld 13 md, or khpadaman): khgmd (shama'

'1 thud is from kh'vu (found as late as the Magnaei of
Maulanfi-yi Rfimi) + ta (cf Skt. — tae termination = from):
Hafish from the same root + ash, affix of 31'(1 sing. = his.
[Pahlavi khfit and khvésh]. Khvu is Avestic hva (Akhaemenian
and), Skt. sea, Lat. 3e, was: Gk. owé, é': Russ. way, etc. In Russian
and in the Greek of the Hellenic period (cf. éavzobg, Luke XVII.,
14 for 5,15; az’yzoiig) the reflexive pronoun, as in Persian, refers
to both numbers and to all three persons.


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