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48 Lesson 7.

khpud, now shumzi khgnidatdn, khgmd é ska/m6, or
45m) : khpud (“ishc‘z‘n khpud, now khyudashdn, ishiz‘n khgnid—
ashdn, or khpud é Only in vulgar speech does
the khpud take the plural termination -hd (the h in
this termination is frequently omitted by the un-
educated), andkhgmdhiz‘mdn (khpuda‘mfin), (khpud-
Zz‘tz‘m), khpudhb‘shdn (Idwudc‘ishfin) are then/used.

§ 63. When khgmd is (a) the direct or (b) the
indirect object of a verb, or (c) is governed by a pre—
position (including igc‘ifeh) or -rd', it refers to the
same person or thing that is the subject of the sen-
tence (as is evident from its meaning self): e. g.,

(a) Man Idlde sdrzanish kdr- (a) ‘I reproached myself’.

T6 kitdb :3 Wm bi-va‘i da'di. ‘Thou gavest thy (own)
book to him’.

Ma bi-khlineh-y-i khpzid mi- ‘We are going to our (own)

rqcim. house’.

(Aya) shumli deb z' Hamid-rd ‘Did on take your (own)

girfffld .9 horse ’

Ehdn dar dt'l i khpud gamlin ‘They did not. imagine

mi-bwrdand. (fancy) in their hearts
(heart ’.

(b) Shumd khpddr'a (or (b) ‘You ave given yourself a
Ichafli zdbmat dddeh id. great deal of trouble’.

(c) U dar birch-yd khpud guft. (c) ‘He (she) spoke about him-
self (herself)’.

§ 64. Foreigners often make mistakes in the use
of khpud through failing to remember that, whenever
in English one can use the word self or own along
with a Personal pronoun without materially altering
the meaning of the sentence, then khgmd (alone or
followed by a possessive pronoun separable or inse—
parable) must be used in Persian instead of the simple
personal pronoun (generally in such cases a possessive).
E. g., in the sentence, ‘I left my book on the table’,
“the meaning is not materially altered by saying ‘I
left my own book on the table’: therefore in Persian,
instead of saying Man kitd'b 'i mart-1, (bar) n‘lry-i mfg
vd guga‘rdam, which is utterly wrong, one should say
man kitzib 'i kh’lg’lid-rfi (bar)n‘l-y-i mile 226 guga‘rdam.

') When governed by -ra it must be the direct or indirect
object of a verb, as will be readily seen.

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