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The reflexive pronoun. 49

In the modern spoken language instead of khpud
alone the compound forms khpzidam, khgnidat, khyudash,
khmidamdn, khyzidatdn, khgnidashan, or khgnid 2' man, etc.
are generally used. This is not approved of in writing
except when necessary to avoid ambiguity (cf. § 45).

In the modern language in both speaking and
writing the pronominal affixes may often be used instead
of khpud in a possessive sense, though the separable
pronouns may not. Thus the sentence iven above,
Ma'n kita‘bi khpzidra (bar) rTZ-y-i mfz 'vd gugardam, might
equally well be put thus, Man kita‘bamrd, etc. So
again, Shumc‘z‘ kha‘nch-y-i Hamidcm farzikhti'd, ‘you sold
your house’, might be Shumé kha‘neh-atdnrd farfi'khtid.
In the third person singular and plural this use of
the pronominal affixes -ash and ashd‘n is open to the
same ambiguity that is found in English: as, kitti-
bashra gum kard, ‘he lost his book’. Here it is not clear
whether it was his own or some other person’s book
that he lost.

§ 65. th'ish may be used‘ instead of khpud when-
ever the latter is not the subject of a sentence: but
khpi'sh cannot take the pronominal affixes or the per-
sonal pronouns preceded by igc‘ifeh when it is used in
this sense.') When Icth is governed by -cm or any
preposition except the igdfeh, the strengthened form
lohpishtan may be substituted for it, but it takes no
appended pronoun and is rarely used except with -rd.
In fact the main use of khp’i'shtan and khgyfsh is to avoid
the repetition of khyud. Examples:

Man Ich pfshtam-a sdrzanish kdrdam : To kita‘b i kh'pifihra
bi-vaé' diz'dz‘: Md bi-kha‘neh-y-i Jellyfish mi-ra'v’im: (Ag/d)
shumfi' a’sb 'i khpfshra girijfl-Z'd? Isha‘n dar dd '5 khp’ish
gamdg nd-burdand : Shaman” khp'i'shtanrd kha'il’i zaltmat dc‘t'deh
id: Udar ba‘reh-y-i khp’ish guft. (For translation m'de § 63.)

§ 66. The use of khgnidash, khznidashfin, is very
noteworthy and very convenient in such a; sentence
as, Shcvoma‘ Edsan-rd sum-Zr z' asb z' khgnidashrd, didi'd, ‘You
saw Hasan mounted on his own horse’. If the affix -ash

1) When khp‘z‘sh is followed by a possessive pronoun it has-
the meaning of ‘a relative’; as man khvishashm didam, ‘I saw
his relative’.

Persian Conv.-Grammar. 4

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