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Language of the common pe0ple. 63

thing happened easy’, i. e. ‘came cheap’: an shakhs khaili
ndghula asf, ‘that fellow is very deceitful’: in rah ndghuld
ast, ‘this road is rough’. Others change their meaning:
as, jdhil, ‘ignorant’, is often used (especially by women)
as meaning ‘young’: mi khpush now means ‘ill, sick,
unwell’, even in writing. Khaili as an adjective or
adverb is hardly ever written, while the book word
Msyc‘ir, its equivalent, is rarely used in conversation:
qashdng, ‘pretty’, is now allowed in books because the
late Shah used it in his diaries. The popular form of
ziralc, ‘clever’, is zardng, but this often means, ‘sharp’,
‘quickwitted’, -— not always in a good sense. POpu-
larly maqbfi'l, ‘accepted’, means ‘pretty’. Kfichfi'li is a
popular word meaning ‘tiny, little’, in a somewhat
contemptuous sense.

The Superlative is rarely used in conversation,
the comparative with az hameh doing duty instead.

For yak. ‘one’, the softer forms ye]: and yey are
constantly heard. This word has, in the language of
the pe0ple, almost supplanted the affix i; as, yéy
kita‘bish bideh for kitiz‘bi bi vai bi-dili, ‘give him a book’.
Occasionally both are used together, as yéy pi‘ilish bi-deh,
‘give him a single copper’.

§ 77. Pronouns, Prepositions, etc. The pOpular form
of the pronominal affixes is: -im, -id, -ish; -imz‘m, -it72n,
-ishi‘m. These are attached to the simple propositions
as well as to other words: thus we get, e. g., bé’m,
bé’t, bé’sh, bé”mi‘m, bé"ti‘m, be”sh-un, for bidi‘i or bi ii or bi
vai, etc. Instead of dar, the word 12? is almost univer-
sally used for ‘in’ of place and work (not of time,
where it is simply omitted); as, t’t-t sandi’iq, ‘in the box’;
task (= dar an), ‘in it’. So 727 takes the place of bar,
‘u on’: as, Icitc‘ib n7 miz ast. ‘the book is on the table’;
rash. ‘on him, on it’. Fish i is used instead of mud i,
‘near’, ‘to’, ‘at’: and instead of the obsolete mard Icitdbi
’st, (mihi est liber), is said, kitéb piin i man ast. Thus
a servant, if asked, kalid kiljd’st? ‘Where is the key?’,
will probably reply, P‘ish i 9mm ast, = ‘I have it’.

In place of -m the old Pahlavi definite termin-
ation -6 is often heard from the lips of the common
people, though it is never written: e. g. dsbo (or dsbo’)

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