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7O Lesson 10.

With Transitive verbs the Perfect and Pluper-
feet are formed in precisely the same way: e. g. from
hushtan, ‘to slay’, kushteh am, ‘I have slain’, (lit. ‘I am
having slain’); hushteh bfidam, ‘I had slain’ (lit. ‘1 was
having slain’). Care must be taken not to translate
these as ‘I am slain’, ‘I was slain’, which in Persian
would be hushteh shade}: am, kushteh shade}: bz‘idam (§ 1 1 1, A.). '

Thus the Persian language saves the beginner the difficulty
which he finds in French, for example, in ' coverin whether
to use étre or avoir as an auxiliary. In Persian the ver dashtan,
‘to have’, is never used as an auxiliary, though it is employed
as a part of some Compound Verbs (§ 124), a very different thing.

When the perfect is immediately followed by
another perfect or by mf-bdshad, hast, etc., the ast etc.
of the first of the perfects is elegantly omitted; as, az
an vaqt ta akmin fiszh-i b'z‘ideh 12a hdstand kill, etc. , where
bz‘ideh stands for bfi'deh and.


sipzirdan, to entrust (updr). khz'ydnat, deceit.
ra’ftan, to go (rav). duriigh, a lie; false,
galabidan, to demand, summon. bak, fear, scruple.
yflab ddshtan, to demand. chant“, shameful.
ddshtan, to have, hold (ddr). mf-tarsam, I fear.
inkdr lcdrdam, to deny. bt-tarsad, he should fear.
kdrdan, to do (loan). vaqzti, time.
git tan, to sa (guy . am nat .

dun, to gig; (M . nmddan 2 to entrust, deposrt.
mmfidan, to shew, do (namdy). bi abdn, desert.
‘arg namlidan, to represent. ram, I have.
pursfdan, to ask, enquire. fatiran, at once.
bz‘cdan, to be (bash). big-dyad, it may come.
bdrdan, to carry off (bar). mabdda, lest.
kbpdstan,towish, demand (khpah). amr, a command.
m’hddan, to put (n01). muhr, a seal.
khpzirdan, to eat. m'shdn, a sign.
gugdrdan d mishlin bi-dz'h, shew.
gugdshtan to Place (9%? r)‘ taba’ssum, a smile.
varztdan, to act, do. khamdsh, silent.
zddan, to strike (can). raodneh shad, he departed.
tarsidan, to fear. dbmaq, a fool.

‘ But with certain verbs the Perfect participle has also
a passive meaning; e. g. navishteh act may mean not only ‘he
has written’ but ‘it is written’: avflchteh act means ‘he has hung’
and also ‘it was hung, it hung’. The context always clearly
shews the sense.

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