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The Verb in general: Active Voice: Tenses from the Infin. 69

This tense also means ‘I used to run’, and often
signifies ‘I began to run’: it is also used for the Con-
ditional Mood in the modern language, both spoken
and written, in place of the obsolete Conditional (§103, e.),
meaning, ‘Were I to run’, etc.

(c) Past Partlclple.

Singular. Plural.
davideh (0413.)) having run, davidaga‘n (§ 36) (.3163 ,9)
(or, ‘on running’). davidehlm‘ (nut-p)

The Past Participle of a Transitive Verb has
generally an active sense, but it may sometimes be
used with a passive meaning, as it always is in the
Passive Voice (§ 110). It is sometimes in the old style
used as a noun: as, giif'teh, ‘a saying, speech’; farm—Zdeh,
‘a command’. Onl when used as a noun has it a
Plural: as, guftehha, ‘sayings’; kushmga‘n, ‘the slain’.

(d) Perfect Indicative.


Singular. Plural.
1et P.:davfdeh am (H.493) davi'deh im (Cusp) l
I have run. we ‘5‘
2nd R: daviilehei (:sza) dath id (44.49;) , é
thou hast run. you '3
3rd P.: davidehast(¢.l..t_p) davi’deh and (gulp) P
he has run. they l

The literal meaning of the Perfect is ‘I am having
run’, etc., which signifies ‘I have run’. So the Pluper-
fect literally means ‘I was having run’, i. e. ‘I had run’.

(e) Pluperfect Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
IB‘PJdavi'dehbiidamgayfazp) damHehbddimge 3'34133) ‘
I had run. we ' lg
2ndP.:davi'dehb1idi(‘5.ay..ip) bz‘ldid(.t_.>y..4:_p) , 9"
thou hadst run. you
3rdP.: davideh bid (.3 31.41”) davi'dehbz‘idanflai: hiya) -
he had run. they l


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