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Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 179

and sale’), ‘barter’, ‘commerce’. One of these nouns

may be Persian and one Arabic, or they may both

belong to the same language. Frequently one of them

explains the other. The shorter of the two comes first:

e. g. jang va fiddl (‘battle’, P..and ‘fighting’, A.), ‘war’.
§ 206. B. Compound Adjectives.

(a) A large number of Compound adjectives are
formed by uniting together two nouns: as, Jag... (sangdil,
from sang, ‘a stone’, and dil, ‘heart’), ‘stonyhearted’;
paripai’kar, ‘of fairy-form’, fairy-like’; mfihn'iy, ‘moon-
faced’; karamshi‘a‘r (from kdram, ‘generosity’, and shi‘iz‘r,
‘habit’), ‘generous’.

(b) Similarly an adjective and a noun may be
compounded together: as (nikbdkht), fortunate’,
‘lucky’; khpushbfiy, ‘sweetsmelling’; badakhla‘q ($14.14.),
‘immoral’; siyah chdshm, ‘blackeyed’. O

(c) Other compound adjectives are formed by
attaching to a noun the root of a verb: as 5,..‘9 (dilsz‘iz)
‘heart-consuming’; rdbatamiz, ‘rest- giving’, ‘restful’;
dila'sa‘, ‘heart-consoling’, ‘comforting’; jahdnara‘, ‘world-
adorning’; jahdngir, ‘world-seizing’; gi‘tiafrfi'z, ‘world-

(d) Occasionally only part of the verbal root with
the termination -dn is used in composition with a noun
. to form a compound adjective; as dtashfisha‘n (from
fishurdan), ‘fire-darting’, ‘volcanic’.

(e) The Past Participle of a verb, in its longer
or shorter form, is often used in such compounds; as,
shdhefz‘deh, ‘king—born’ (hence as a noun ‘a prince’);
Khuddrasideh, ‘havingvattained to (a knowledge of) God’;
jahdndideh, ‘experienced’, ‘travelled’ (‘having seen the
world’); kardzmiideh, ‘experienced’ (‘having been tried
in work’); sdlkhpdrdeh, ‘aged’, ‘advanced in age’.

(f) The prepositions bd, ‘with’, and bi, ‘without"
are often compounded with a noun to form an adjective;
as a, (bfi-shaqa‘vat), ‘miserable’; bd—gafd, (‘with pu-
rity =) ‘nice’; bi-munivvat, ‘unkind’; bi-fdhm, ‘senseless’;
bi-z‘mh‘n, ‘unbelieving’; bi-din, ‘without a religion’, ‘in-
fidel’. This class of adjectives, like every other, may


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