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142 WALLS [cu

the writer finds that much old plaster is mixed with straw, with
lime in the finishing coat only. Before the improvements in the
means of communication which took place during the nineteenth
century, the carriage of lime into districts which did not produce
lime was difficult, and a very old Derbyshire man once described
to the writer the lines of horses which he had Seen crossing the
moors, in single file, and carrying panniers of lime from the Peak
of Derbyshire to Sheffield. In South Yorkshire the straw was
trodden into the plaster by women, and in East Lancashire by
boys. In East Anglia and in Cheshire horses were used for the
purpose: in the latter county the clay and straw were placed in a
farmyard, and the horses trod it until it was thoroughly softened
and moistened. In the year 1477—8 the churchwardens of
St Michael's, Bath, paid for hay and straw for daubing (‘ffeno et
straminel’). The earliest use of the word daub, as given in the
Oxford Englzlr/t Dictionary is from the year 1325, viz., ‘Cleme hit
with clay comely within and alle the entendur dryuen daube with-
outen.’ The parish of Ludlow possessed a church house which was
often in need of repair, for which purpose clay was used and the
accounts show that in the year I 537 the churchwardens bought
‘ roddes to wynde ii walles in the churche howse.’ Palsgrave wrote
in the year 1530 that ‘daubing may be with clay onely, with lime
plaster, or lome that is tempered with heare or strawe.’ Harrison
in his description of England in 1586 wrote, ‘The claie wherewith
our houses are empanelled is either white, red or blue,’ of which
the first partook of the character of chalk and the second of loam 2.
According to the Builder’s Dictionary, I 734, ‘ Loam is a sort of
reddish earth, used in buildings (when tempered with mud, jelly,
straw, and water) for plaistering walls in ordinary houses”.’ In the
Old Halls of Lamas/tire alia’ C/zes/tire the plaster panels of the
buildings are said to be ‘filled in with a basket work osier foun-
dation, daubed over with clay strengthened with stringy weeds. The
finishing coat is of plaster on both sides, richly matted with hair,
and frequently set back half an inch or more.’ The materials for
daubed walls were beaten up and incorporated with a sort of club
called a ‘ dauber’s beater.’

1 Proceedings of the Somerse/r/zire Arc/urological and Natural flit-wry Society, [87 7-80.

2 In the chapter ‘ Of the Manner of Building and Furniture of our IIouses,’ which is
an interesting contemporary description of Elizabethan buildings, and should be read.

3 Dictionary of the Architectural Puolication Society, 5.2). Loam.

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